that black women suffered under slavery. The poet Phillis Wheatley (175384) published her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral in 1773, three years before American independence. D., In the African-American Grain: Call and Response in Twentieth-Century Black Fiction, University of Illinois Press, reprinted 2001. 34 Jarena Lee published two religious autobiographical narratives: The Life and Religious Experience of Jarena Lee and Religious Experience and Journal of Mrs. It was the first African-American fiction to portray passing, that is, a mixed-race person deciding to identify as white rather than black. " African-American Theory and Criticism " from the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism.
Jstor: Viewing Subject: History
Image enlargement "Without the evolution of the churches' opinions. African-American writing has tended to incorporate oral forms, such as spirituals, sermons, gospel music, blues, or rap. An epistolary novel (a book written in the form of letters The Color Purple tells the story of Celie, a young woman who is sexually abused by her stepfather and then is forced to marry a man who physically abuses her. Finally, African-American literature has gained added attention through the work of talk-show host Oprah Winfrey, who repeatedly has leveraged her fame to promote literature through the medium of her Oprah's Book Club. Paul Laurence Dunbar, who often wrote in the rural, black dialect of the day, was the first African-American poet to gain national prominence. Any of us who receive e-mail from large numbers of Americans can attest to the deteriorating education including among those who attended college in written English. Authors of such narratives include James Gronniosaw, John Marrant, and George White. "An Anatomy of Multiculturalism". 59 For Warren, it is the coherence of responding to racist narratives in the struggle for civil rights that establishes the body of African-American literature, and the scholar suggests that continuing to refer to the texts produced after the civil rights era as such.