results reported by the individual studies, but rather to examine whether common features between the data sets can be more effectively revealed by gene-set analysis rather than single-gene analysis. Gsea-p Software and MSigDB Gene Sets. Interpretation can be daunting and ad hoc, being dependent on a biologist's area of expertise. Chromosome 5q deletions are present in most AML patients, with the critical region having been localized to 5q31 ( 17 ).
In the current paper, we have refined the original approach into a sensitive, robust analytical method and tool with much broader applicability along with a large database of gene sets. Shown are plots of the running sum for the three gene sets: S1 is significantly enriched in females as expected, S2 is randomly distributed and scores poorly, and S3 is not enriched at the top of the list but is nonrandom, so it scores well. This effect also showed no negativity bias in post hoc tests (.09,.93). Box 19024, Seattle, WA ; Department of Neurology, Enders 260, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142; and Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142. These results suggest that the emotions expressed by friends, via online social networks, influence our own moods, constituting, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence for massive-scale emotional contagion via social networks ( 3, 7, 8 and providing support for previously contested claims that emotions. In fact, this is the result when people are exposed to less positive content, rather than more. 4, with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway significantly enriched in the normal samples (.008, FDR.04). Variations of the gsea Method.
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Pnas June 17, (24) ; published ahead of print June 2, 2014 https doi. To test robustness, we reanalyzed data from two recent studies of lung cancer reported by our own group in Boston ( 22 ) and another group in Michigan ( 23 ). In the original implementation, the running-sum statistic used equal weights at every step, which yielded high scores for sets clustered near the middle of the ranked list ( Fig. The leading-edge subsets consist of 16, 11, and 13 genes, respectively, with each containing four genes encoding products involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling subpathway (MAP2K1, RAF1, ELK1, and PIK3CA) ( Fig. The details of the implementation are described in the Appendix (see also Supporting Text, which is published as supporting information on the pnas web site). Examination of the leading-edge subset can reveal a biologically important subset within a gene set as we show below in our analysis of P53 status in cancer cell lines. This observation, and the fact that people were more emotionally positive in response to positive emotion updates from their friends, stands in contrast to theories that suggest viewing positive posts by friends on Facebook may somehow affect us negatively, for example, via social comparison (. Mesirov, broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, 320 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141;Department of Systems Biology, Alpert 536, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02446; Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Center for Interdisciplinary Engineering, Medicine, and Applied Sciences, Duke. One consists of genes escaping X inactivation merged from two sources ( 13, 14 ) that largely overlap, discovering hiking trip essay the expected enrichment in female cells. When positive posts were reduced in the News Feed, the percentage of positive words in peoples status updates decreased by.1 compared with control t (310,044).63,.001, Cohens.02, whereas the percentage of words that were negative increased by.04.
Which content is shown or omitted in the News Feed is determined via a ranking algorithm that Facebook continually develops and tests in the interest of showing viewers the content they will find most relevant and engaging. People who viewed Facebook in English were qualified for selection into the experiment. OpenUrl Abstract/free Full Text Beer,. OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed Garber,. 4, which is published as supporting information on the pnas web site). Already in the Boston/Michigan overlap, we saw evidence of telomerase and p-53 response as noted above. Most determine whether a group of differentially expressed genes is enriched for a pathway or ontology term by using overlap statistics such as the cumulative hypergeometric distribution. After establishing that our experimental groups did not differ in emotional expression during the week before the experiment (all.5; all.13 we examined overall posting rate via a Poisson regression, using the percent of posts omitted as a regression weight.
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